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A month or so ago I found the Bottle Micro-framework. I'd never even heard of it, then I ran across it linked from another site and I really liked the look of it. And it really means it when it says it's a micro framework: it's a single file of around 2,200 lines.

Read the rest of this post for an example and my experimentation with user authentication.

For example, to create a WSGI web app:

from bottle import view, route, run

def index(name = 'world'):
   return locals()


The “@route” lines expose the URLs, this function will be used for the URLs “/” (using a default “name” argument) and “/anything”, where “anything” is passed as the “name” argument. The “@view” specifies a template to be used, in this case the file “index.html” which in my example contains “Hello !” (a bottle SimpleTemplate).

My function simply returns a dictionary, in this case the local namespace.

The “run” call creates a stand-alone server, and if not given a WSGI application it will use “” by default. Instead, you can use any WSGI infrastructure, for example I've tested it under mod_wsgi in Apache. You can also make it a CGI simply…

Unlike many very simple things, more complicated uses have been surprisingly straightforward. For example: adding debugging (“bottle.debug(True)”), handling get versus post (use “@get” or “@post” instead of “@route”), serving static files and error handlers, plugging in other templating languages… Unlike other systems, when I have started reaching for more complicated uses, bottle's learning curve has remained fairly shallow.

The down side is that bottle requires Python 2.5 or newer. Not a huge requirement, but one of my first applications I built up and then realized the machine I was deploying it on was CentOS 5.5, which has Python 2.4. Luckily it also has a “python26” package available, and I didn't need other libraries, so it worked out just fine.

Another down side is that it really has no authentication helpers. So tonight I took an example off the bottle mailing list and extended it some into something I'm calling bottlesession.

It tries to keep things simple and decorator-based by adding an “authenticator” decorator, which takes a session manager object so you can implement your own session database interface easily. You really only have to implement “save” which takes a dictionary, and “load” which returns None or a dictionary with “valid” set to True or False.

An example of using bottlelogin:

session_manager = bottlesession.PickleSession()
valid_user = bottlesession.authenticator(session_manager)

def index(name = 'world'):
   return '<h1>Hello %s!</h1>' % name.title()

def login():
   session = session_manager.get_session()
   session['valid'] = True
   bottle.redirect(bottle.request.COOKIES.get('validuserloginredirect', '/'))

In this case we have protected the “index” resource, and have exposed a simple “login” resource which sets the session to be valid and redirects us back to the page the user was trying to reach originally.

Obviously, you'll have to implement a session manager, but it just has to subclass the BaseSession and implement “load” and “save” methods.

I've posted a message to the bottle mailing list hoping for some discussion about it. Perhaps this is useful enough that some future version could make it's way into bottle itself.

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